Study: No Increase In Problematic Cannabis Use By Young People Following Changes In Marijuana’s Legal Status

no_marijuanaYet another study has once again affirmed that the regulation of marijuana for medical or recreational purposes is not associated with increases in problematic cannabis use by young people.

Writing in the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry, federal investigators from the US National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration evaluated marijuana use rates among young people (ages 12 to 17) between the years 2002 and 2014.

Researchers reported that the prevalence of past-year cannabis use by youth fell 17 percent during this time period. The prevalence of problematic use by young people fell by 25 percent – with a downward trend starting in 2011.

“In the United States, compared to 2002, even after adjusting for covariates, cannabis use decreased among youth during 2005-2014, and cannabis use disorder declined among youth cannabis users during 2013-2014,” authors concluded.

The study’s findings are consistent with those of numerous other papers reporting no uptick in youth marijuana use or abuse following the enactment of marijuana regulation, including those here, here, here, here, here, here, and here.

An abstract of the study, “Cannabis use and cannabis use disorders in the United States, 2002-2014,” appears online here.

Marijuana Use Continues Rapid Decline Among Younger Teens

no_marijuanaSelf-reported marijuana use continues to fall among younger teens, according to federally commissioned, nationwide survey data compiled by the University of Michigan.

Results from the 2016 edition of the Monitoring the Future survey find that marijuana use by 8th-graders and 10th-graders is declining year by year. Further, a greater percentage of younger teens now say that their ability to obtain marijuana is more difficult than ever before.

Marijuana use patterns among 12th-graders have held steady since 2011, the survey reported.

Approximately 50,000 students are surveyed annually as part of the University of Michigan study.

Since the mid-1990s, self-reported lifetime use of cannabis has fallen 44 percent among 8th-graders, 30 percent among 10th-graders, and ten percent among 12th-graders. Twenty-nine states have legalized the medical use of cannabis, and eight of those states have also regulated the adult use of marijuana, since that time.

Overall, teens’ self-reported use of alcohol and/or any illicit substance aside from marijuana is at a historic low.

Previous federally funded surveys by the US Centers for Disease Control and others have similarly reported that changes in statewide marijuana laws are not associated with rising levels of youth use.

DEA Reaffirms ‘Flat Earth’ Position With Regard To Scheduling Marijuana

imgresThe United States Drug Enforcement Administration has rejected a pair of administrative petitions that sought to initiate rulemaking proceedings to reschedule marijuana under federal law.

Although the DEA’s ruling continues to classify marijuana in the same category as heroin, the agency also announced in a separate decision that it is adopting policy changes designed to expand the production of research-grade cannabis for FDA-approved clinical studies.

Presently, any clinical trial involving cannabis must access source material cultivated at the University of Mississippi — a prohibition that is not in place for other controlled substances. Today, the agency announced for the first time that it will be seeking applications from multiple parties, including potentially from private entities, to produce marijuana for FDA-approved research protocols as well as for “commercial product development.” This change was initially recommended by the DEA’s own administrative law judge in 2007, but her decision was ultimately rejected by the agency in 2011.

Below is a statement from NORML Deputy Director Paul Armentano regarding the DEA’s decisions:

For far too long, federal regulations have made clinical investigations involving cannabis needlessly onerous and have placed unnecessary and arbitrary restrictions on marijuana that do not exist for other controlled substances, including some other schedule I controlled substances.

While this announcement is a significant step toward better facilitating and expanding clinical investigations into cannabis’ therapeutic efficacy, ample scientific evidence already exists to remove cannabis from its schedule I classification and to acknowledge its relative safety compared to other scheduled substances, like opioids, and unscheduled substances, such as alcohol. Ultimately, the federal government ought to remove cannabis from the Controlled Substances Act altogether in a manner similar to alcohol and tobacco, thus providing states the power to establish their own marijuana regulatory policies free from federal intrusion.

Since the DEA has failed to take such action, then it is incumbent that members of Congress act swiftly to amend cannabis’ criminal status in a way that comports with both public and scientific opinion. Failure to do so continues the federal government’s ‘Flat Earth’ position; it willfully ignores the well-established therapeutic properties associated with the plant and it ignores the laws in 26 states recognizing marijuana’s therapeutic efficacy.

Under the U.S. Controlled Substances Act of 1970, the cannabis plant and its organic cannabinoids are classified as Schedule I prohibited substances — the most restrictive category available under the law. By definition, substances in this category must meet three specific inclusion criteria:

The substance must possess “a high potential for abuse”; it must have “no currently accepted medical use” in the United States; and, the substance must lack “accepted safety for use … under medical supervision.”

Substances that do not meet these criteria must, by law, be categorized in less restrictive federal schedules (Schedules II through V) and are legally regulated accordingly. Alcohol and tobacco, two substances widely acknowledged to possess far greater dangers to health than does cannabis, are not classified under the Controlled Substances Act.

A recent review of FDA-approved clinical studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of herbal cannabis concluded: “Based on evidence currently available the Schedule I classification is not tenable; it is not accurate that cannabis has no medical value, or that Information on safety is lacking.”

Added Armentano: “The DEA’s decision is strictly a political one. There is nothing scientific about willful ignorance.”

The DEA has previously rejected several other rescheduling petitions, including a 2002 petition filed by a coalition of marijuana law reform and health advocacy organizations, and a 1972 petition filed by NORML. The petitions that triggered this latest DEA action were filed in 2009 by a nurse practitioner and 011 by then-Govs. Christine Gregoire of Washington and Lincoln Chafee of Rhode Island.

DEA: Marijuana Seizures Decline In 2015

personal_cultivationSeizures of indoor and outdoor cannabis crops by the US Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) fell in 2015, according to annual data compiled by the US Drug Enforcement Administration.

According to the DEA’s Domestic Cannabis Eradication/Suppression Statistical Report, agents eradicated 4.25 million marijuana plants nationwide in 2015. That total is slightly less than the total reported by the agency for the year 2014 (4.3 million) and continues to the ongoing decline in eradication totals since 2010, when the agency reported eliminating some 10.3 million plants.

As in past years, DEA eradication efforts largely focused on California. Of the total number of plants seized nationwide by the DEA in 2015, 62 percent were in California.

Only about 7 percent of all plants seized by the DEA were from indoor grows.

The DEA reported making some 6,300 arrests in conjunction with their cannabis eradication efforts — a total that mirrors 2014 figures. By contrast, the agency reported making nearly 10,000 marijuana arrests in 2010 and 8,500 arrests in 2011.

Tables from the 2015 report are online here.

Federal Court of Appeals Denies Petition to Reschedule Marijuana

In a 28-page decision, the US Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia Circuit has denied petitioners request to overturn the July 2011 denial by the Drug Enforcement Administration to initiate proceedings to reschedule marijuana under federal law.

In October 2002, the Coalition to Reschedule Cannabis, a coalition of reform organizations including NORML, ASA, Patients Out of Time and High Times, among others, petitioned the DEA to reschedule marijuana as a Schedule III, IV, or V drug. Following years of administrative delay, on July 8, 2011, the DEA denied the petition, finding that “[t]here is no currently accepted medical use for marijuana in the United States,” and that “[t]he limited existing clinical evidence is not adequate to warrant rescheduling of marijuana under the CSA.”

Petitioners then sought review in the federal Court of Appeals, alleging the decision by the DEA was arbitrary and capricious when it concluded that marijuana lacks a “currently accepted medical use” and has a “high potential for abuse.” They ask this court to remand the case to the DEA for reconsideration of its decision.

Written by Senior Circuit Judge Edwards, the decision ruled “On the record before us, we hold that the DEA’s denial of the rescheduling petition survives review under the deferential arbitrary and capricious standard. The petition asks the DEA to reclassify marijuana as a Schedule III, IV, or V drug, which, under the terms of the CSA, requires a ‘currently accepted medical use.’ The DEA’s regulations, which we approved in Alliance for Cannabis Therapeutics v. DEA, 15 F.3d 1131 (D.C. Cir. 1994), define ‘currently accepted medical use’ to require, inter alia, ‘adequate and well-controlled studies proving efficacy.’ Id. at1135. We defer to the agency’s interpretation of these regulations and find that substantial evidence supports its determination that such studies do not exist.

“In its scientific and medical evaluation,” the court held, “DHHS concluded that marijuana lacks a currently accepted medical use in the United States. In reaching this conclusion, DHHS applied the DEA’s established five-prong test, which requires a known and reproducible drug chemistry, adequate safety studies, adequate and well-controlled studies demonstrating efficacy, acceptance of the drug by qualified experts, and widely available scientific evidence.”

“We will not disturb the decision of an agency that has ‘examine[d] the relevant data and articulate[d] a satisfactory explanation for its action including a rational connection between the facts found and the choice made.’”

In this case, we need only look at one factor, the existence of “adequate and well-controlled studies proving efficacy,” to resolve Petitioners’ claim.

At bottom, the parties’ dispute in this case turns on the agency’s interpretation of its own regulations. Petitioners construe “adequate and well-controlled studies” to mean peer-reviewed, published studies suggesting marijuana’s medical efficacy. The DEA, in contrast, interprets that factor to require something more scientifically rigorous.

In making this assessment, we must “remind ourselves that our role in the Congressional scheme is not to give an independent judgment of our own, but rather to determine whether the expert agency entrusted with regulatory responsibility has taken an irrational or arbitrary view of the evidence assembled before it.

The DEA’s construction of its regulation is eminently reasonable. Therefore, we are obliged to defer to the agency’s interpretation of “adequate and well-controlled studies.” Judged against the DEA’s standard, we find nothing in the record that could move us to conclude that the agency failed to prove by substantial evidence that such studies confirming marijuana’s medical efficacy do not exist.”

Petitioners are considering their legal options at this time.

White House: “We’re in the Midst of a Serious National Conversation on Marijuana”

We the PeopleIn October of 2011, the White House issued an official response to a petition NORML submitted via their We the People outreach program on the topic of marijuana legalization. Despite being one of the most popular petitions at the site’s launch, the answer we received was far from satisfactory. Penned by Drug Czar Gil Kerlikowske, the response featured most of the typical government talking points. He stated that marijuana is associated with addiction, respiratory disease, and cognitive impairment and that its use is a concern to public health. “We also recognize,” Gil wrote, “that legalizing marijuana would not provide the answer to any of the health, social, youth education, criminal justice, and community quality of life challenges associated with drug use.”

Well, just over a year later, the White House has responded again to a petition to deschedule marijuana and legalize it. The tone this time is markedly different, despite being penned by the same man.

Addressing the Legalization of Marijuana
By Gil Kerlikowske

Thank you for participating in We the People and speaking out on the legalization of marijuana. Coming out of the recent election, it is clear that we’re in the midst of a serious national conversation about marijuana.

At President Obama’s request, the Justice Department is reviewing the legalization initiatives passed in Colorado and Washington, given differences between state and federal law. In the meantime, please see a recent interview with Barbara Walters in which President Obama addressed the legalization of marijuana.

Barbara Walters:

Do you think that marijuana should be legalized?

President Obama:

Well, I wouldn’t go that far. But what I think is that, at this point, Washington and Colorado, you’ve seen the voters speak on this issue. And as it is, the federal government has a lot to do when it comes to criminal prosecutions. It does not make sense from a prioritization point of view for us to focus on recreational drug users in a state that has already said that under state law that’s legal.

…this is a tough problem because Congress has not yet changed the law. I head up the executive branch; we’re supposed to be carrying out laws. And so what we’re going to need to have is a conversation about how do you reconcile a federal law that still says marijuana is a federal offense and state laws that say that it’s legal.

When you’re talking about drug kingpins, folks involved with violence, people are who are peddling hard drugs to our kids in our neighborhoods that are devastated, there is no doubt that we need to go after those folks hard… it makes sense for us to look at how we can make sure that our kids are discouraged from using drugs and engaging in substance abuse generally. There is more work we can do on the public health side and the treatment side.

Gil Kerlikowske is Director of the Office of National Drug Control Policy

No tirade about protecting our children. No alarmist claims about sky rocketing marijuana potency and devastating addiction potential. Just a few short paragraphs stating we are “in the midst of a serious national conversation about marijuana” and deferring to an interview with the President where he stated arresting marijuana users wasn’t a priority and that the laws were still being reviewed. While far from embracing an end to marijuana prohibition, the simple fact that America’s Drug Czar had the opportunity to spout more anti-marijuana rhetoric and instead declined (while giving credence to the issue by stating it is a serious national conversation) it’s at the very least incredibly refreshing, if not a bit aberrational. We can only hope that when the administration finishes “reviewing” the laws just approved by resounding margins in Washington and Colorado, they choose to stand with the American people and place themselves on the right side of history.

“We the People” are already there.

The MedZilla Report for March 2011 — Health Care Information Technology on the Rise


(Vocus/PRWEB) March 09, 2011

The U.S. employment situation remained relatively static in February, according to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, with the unemployment rate holding steady at 8.9 percent. However, health care jobs increased by 34,000 — more than three times as many jobs created in February as in January. Many of those jobs were in primary care, as physicians plan to retire and Americans continue living longer (ama-assn.org, 2/24/11). However, layoffs were also up in February, according to Challenger, Gray & Christmas, who reported that companies nationwide planned to release just over 50,000 people, the highest total in 11 months. Of those 50,000, though, only 335 were in pharmaceuticals and 1,337 in health care.

“Health care remains a consistent growth industry in the U.S.,” said John Burkhardt, Managing Director of MedZilla.com, the internet’s most established source for health care, pharmaceutical, and biotechnology employment information. “It’s not just doctors and nurses, though, that are benefiting; as the PPACA — health care reform — comes closer to its final effective date in 2014, information technology roles will continue to grow in both scope and number.” Dell recently introduced a new suite of health service technology including cloud storage, intended to lower data storage costs and increase efficiency (tmcnet.com, 2/22/11). At a healthcare information management trade show, Allied Telesis recently demonstrated new imaging and conferencing technology (prnewswire.com, 2/21/11). Hewlett-Packard and Adobe have developed new solutions (channelinsider.com, 2/18/11; fastcompany.com, 2/24/11). Even Watson, the first non-human Jeopardy! competitor, is getting in on the action: IBM is working with Nuance Technology to increase the device’s ability to comprehend and answer questions in natural language (digitaltrends.com, 2/18/11). “People who never thought they’d be getting jobs in healthcare might someday be reporting to hospitals or medical technology firms,” Burkhardt added.

February’s candidate search numbers from MedZilla.com speak to Burkhardt’s point — companies seeking qualified applicants increased their search activities by 2.5 percent in February. Companies who increased candidate searches in general were mostly located in California (up four percent) and New Jersey (3.1); however, numbers dropped significantly in North Carolina and Texas — both down 3.3 percent. Job postings by employers and job searches by applicants remained fairly even, month-to-month, with only New Jersey showing a significant change — up 1.3 percent in postings and 1.2 percent in searches. “We haven’t seen corresponding changes — in New Jersey or anywhere else — with technology-minded applicants looking for jobs in health care information technology,” said Del Johnston, MedZilla’s Manager of Client Relations. “Our numbers for the past few months haven’t shifted much one way or the other. It’s still very possible to scoop everyone else and try to get in on the ground floor with health care I.T.”

Johnston also followed up on recent MedZilla coverage of looming layoffs in the U.K. National Health Service. “News on that front was pretty light in February, although the Department of Health has said they won’t confirm figures of over 50,000 that have been in the news lately.” One advocacy group stated that, despite the government’s plan to eliminate many jobs through natural means rather than direct firings, they couldn’t see where the cuts would come from other than patient care (nasdaq.com, 2/23/11). Meanwhile, in Canada, many Saskatchewan health care workers who may wish to strike amid contract talks are being denied that opportunity due to being considered “essential” (winnipegfreepress.com, 2/16/11).

In the U.S., a legal — though questionable — activity might impact current and future employment for anyone in the health care field. Many medical — and other — companies are trying to transition from “smoke-free” to “smoker-free” workplaces, in part to cut costs; in doing so, they have instituted testing and penalty procedures equating nicotine with illegal drugs such as marijuana (nytimes.com, 2/10/11). “Because smoking is a voluntary activity, rules against discrimination do not apply,” said Burkhardt. “Though things are getting better, the job market is still extremely competitive and many people are still having difficulty finding jobs, especially if they’ve been out of work for a while. Quitting smoking might not give you an edge, but it will give potential employers one less thing they can hold against you when they compare you with other candidates.”

About MedZilla.com:

Established in mid-1994, MedZilla is the original and leading web site to serve career and hiring needs for professionals and employers in biotechnology, pharmaceuticals, medicine, science and healthcare. The MedZilla jobs database contains about 7,500 open positions. The resume database currently contains over 285,000 resumes with 26,000 less than three months old. These resources have been characterized as the largest, most comprehensive databases of their kind on the web in the industries served.

Medzilla

EVENT: Medical Cannabis Conference – January 22nd 2011

www.cbdconference.com | The Orange County Chapter of NORML, Apothecary Genetics, GGECO University, Kush Media will be holding a one day Medical Cannabis Conference for Seniors, Medical Professionals and the Community. This conference will take place on Saturday, January 22, 2011 from 9 AM to 8 PM in Orange County, CA. California voters passed Proposition 215 in 1996, which allowed qualified patients with a physician’s recommendation to use medical marijuana legally. In 2003 Senate Bill 420 was passed and allowed patients who are not able to grow their own medicine to join patient collectives providing safe access to their medicine. In the last couple years there has been an increase in Medical Cannabis. In an effort to help further state, county, & city agencies educate and protect the public, about the proper safe use and governing legislation regarding Medical Cannabis. Educating the public about safe use with various routes of administration, dosage forms, and methods of usage are known and that correct information is being received by the public and medical community this conference is being held. The Medical Cannabis Conference will be bringing two renowned Physicians to Orange County for their first presentations ever in this area, Dr. William Courtney and Dr. Donald Abrams. William Courtney, MD, has an extensive medical education; he received his Bachelor of Science from the University of Michigan, his Doctor of Medicine from Wayne State University, and his Post

Via The Raw Story: “A man who was refused a liver transplant by Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles because he used medical marijuana to cope with his symptoms is hoping his story will change the transplant policies of hospitals around the country…”.* Ana Kasparian and Cenk Uygur discuss on The Young Turks. * www.rawstory.com Subscribe to The Young Turks: bit.ly Find out how to watch The Young Turks on Current by clicking here: www.current.com The Largest Online New Show in the World. Google+: www.gplus.to Facebook: www.facebook.com Twitter: twitter.com
Video Rating: 4 / 5

MediCann Holds Cannabis as Medicine Symposium in San Diego on April 2, 2011


San Diego, CA (PRWEB) March 25, 2011

MediCann invites San Diego residents and the community to attend a free Cannabis as Medicine Symposium at Paradise Point Resort in San Diego to be held on April 2nd. The purpose of this event is to educate the public about the health benefits and science behind the use of medical marijuana in the treatment of disease. Medical experts such as Dr. Jean Talleyrand, CEO and Founder of MediCann, will be at the forefront of this information and issue packed day. History, news, fact and fiction will be explored in highly informative discourse with some of the nations top leaders in medical cannabis. Admission is free and open to the public. Donations of canned food for the San Diego Food Bank will be appreciated, but not required, upon entrance.

“I believe that through education and outreach, people will learn to become more understanding towards medical cannabis and the patients who use it therapeutically, as a healing professional this cannot be understated.” ? Dr. Jean Talleyrand, Founder MediCann

“Education is the first step to combating prejudices towards medical cannabis patients.”

“The symposium will feature lectures by physicians about medical cannabis and how it works, a medical cannabis testing laboratory, a medical cannabis attorney, and a patient testimonial on the benefits of medical cannabis in treating a variety of medical conditions commonly experienced by returning military veterans.”

? Dr. Mark L. Rabe, MediCann?s Director of Health Services

Mission of the Event:


An educational symposium tour to enlighten California and San Diego residents on the benefits and uses of medical cannabis. To educate and inform, offering first-hand access to news, stories, myth busting, history and research from medical professionals and cannabis industry experts regarding medical cannabis. To illustrate how cannabis work as medicine and how it improves overall health.

Breaking the Stigma of Medical Cannabis: Many potential medical cannabis patients are wary of utilizing this plant due to societal and political stigmas. MediCann believes through education and outreach, people will learn to become more understanding towards medical cannabis and the patients who use it therapeutically. An aligned goal is to create a safe, public space for discussions on this often-misunderstood medicine and shine a light on perceived misconceptions and myths.

Key Speakers

Jean Talleyrand, MD: A Historical Review of Medical Cannabis Use in Our Society
Mark L. Rabe, MD, ABIHM: A Scientific Review of How Medical Cannabis Works to Improve the Health of our Patients
John ?Barney? Welsh, MD, PhD: Medical Cannabis and Diabetes
Eugene Davidovich: Veterans for Medical Cannabis

Presentations

Legal Cannabis Institute
SteepHill Lab

Sponsors

Legal Cannabis Institute
The Green Door
Stop the Ban SD
Patients Out of Time
Veterans for Medical Cannabis

Sponsorship Opportunities

Interested in becoming a sponsor? Contact Jason West at j.west(at)medicann(dot)com

Founded in 2004 by physician Jean Talleyrand, MediCann offers alternative healthcare therapies, including medical cannabis consultations, throughout its network of 20 clinics in California. As the largest medical organization of its kind, MediCann has been able to provide evaluations and relief to over 230,000 patients since its inception. MediCann is a physician-driven, medical organization dedicated to helping people achieving better health. MediCann?s mission is to never deny a patient in need and to provide comprehensive and integrated services for overall wellness. MediCann physicians and clinic managers are experienced, highly trained, and compassionate medical professionals. MediCann engages in ongoing research to develop new therapeutic uses for cannabis, and has continuously been recognized by their patients, the medical community, and the press for the highest standards of professionalism. Helping patients manage their chronic pain is their number one goal. Treatments include: evaluations, massage, acupuncture, biofeedback, chiropractic treatment, nutritional counseling, naturopathy, homeopathy and mental health counseling.

Contact: Jenny Vilchez 866-632-6627 x314

Follow MediCann

Facebook: MediCann Inc

Twitter: @MediCann

2012: The Year In Review — NORML’s Top 10 Events That Shaped Marijuana Policy

#1 Colorado and Washington Vote To Legalize Marijuana
Voters in Colorado and Washington made history by approving ballot measures allowing for the personal possession and consumption of cannabis by adults. Washington’s law, which removes criminal penalties for the possession of up to one ounce of cannabis for personal use (as well as the possession of up to 16 ounces of marijuana-infused product in solid form, and 72 ounces of marijuana-infused product in liquid form), took effect on December 6. Colorado’s law, which allows for the legal possession of up to one ounce of marijuana and/or the cultivation of up to six cannabis plants in private by those persons age 21 and over, took effect on December 10. Regulators in both states are now in the process of drafting rules to allow for state-licensed proprietors to commercially produce and sell cannabis.

#2 Most Americans Favor Legalization, Want The Feds To Butt Out
A majority of Americans support legalizing the use of cannabis by adults, according to national polls by Public Policy Polling, Angus Reid, Quinnipiac University, and others. A record high 83 percent of US citizens favor allowing doctors to authorize specified amounts of marijuana for patients suffering from serious illnesses. And nearly two-thirds of Americans oppose federal interference in state laws that allow for legal marijuana use by adults.

#3 Connecticut, Massachusetts Legalize Cannabis Therapy
Connecticut and Massachusetts became the 17th and 18th states to allow for the use of cannabis when recommended by a physician. Connecticut lawmakers in May approved Public Act 12-55, An Act Concerning the Palliative Use of Marijuana. The new law took effect on October 1. On Election Day, 63 percent of Massachusetts voters approved Question 3, eliminating statewide criminal and civil penalties related to the possession and use of up to a 60-day supply of cannabis by qualified patients. The law takes effect on January 1, 2013.

#4 Schedule I Prohibitive Status For Pot “Untenable,” Scientists Say
The classification of cannabis and its organic compounds as Schedule I prohibited substances under federal law is scientifically indefensible, according to a review published online in May in The Open Neurology Journal. Investigators at the University of California at San Diego and the University of California, Davis reviewed the results of several recent clinical trials assessing the safety and efficacy of inhaled or vaporized cannabis. They concluded: “Based on evidence currently available the Schedule I classification is not tenable; it is not accurate that cannabis has no medical value, or that information on safety is lacking.”

#5 Marijuana Arrests Decline, But Still Total Half Of All Illicit Drug Violations
Police made 757,969 arrests in 2011 for marijuana-related offenses, according to the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s annual Uniform Crime Report. The total marked a decline from previous years. Of those charged in 2011 with marijuana law violations, 663,032 (86 percent) were arrested for marijuana offenses involving possession only. According to the report, approximately 43 percent of all drug violations in 2011 were for cannabis possession.

#6 Long-Term Cannabis Exposure Not Associated With Adverse Lung Function
Exposure to moderate levels of cannabis smoke, even over the long-term, is not associated with adverse effects on pulmonary function, according to clinical trial data published in January in the Journal of the American Medical Association. Investigators at the University of California, San Francisco analyzed the association between marijuana exposure and pulmonary function over a 20-year period in a cohort of 5,115 men and women in four US cities. They concluded: “With up to 7 joint-years of lifetime exposure (e.g., 1 joint/d for 7 years or 1 joint/wk for 49 years), we found no evidence that increasing exposure to marijuana adversely affects pulmonary function. … Our findings suggest that occasional use of marijuana … may not be associated with adverse consequences on pulmonary function.”

#7 Cannabis Use Associated With Decreased Prevalence Of Diabetes
Adults with a history of marijuana use have a lower prevalence of type 2 diabetes and possess a lower risk of contracting the disease than do those with no history of cannabis consumption, according to clinical trial data published in the British Medical Journal. Investigators at the University of California, Los Angeles assessed the association between diabetes mellitus (DM) and marijuana use among adults aged 20 to 59 in a nationally representative sample of the US population of 10,896 adults. Investigators concluded, “Our analysis of adults aged 20-59 years … Showed that participants who used marijuana had a lower prevalence of DM and lower odds of DM relative to non-marijuana users.”

#8 Medical Cannabis Dispensaries Not Associated With Neighborhood Crime
The establishment of medical cannabis dispensaries does not adversely impact local crime rates, according to a federally funded study published in the July issue of the Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. Researchers reported: “There were no observed cross-sectional associations between the density of medical marijuana dispensaries and either violent or property crime rates in this study.”

#9 Rhode Island Becomes The 15th State To Decriminalize Pot Possession Penalties
Governor Lincoln Chafee signed legislation into law in June amending marijuana possession penalties for those age 18 or older from a criminal misdemeanor (punishable by one year in jail and a $500 maximum fine) to a non-arrestable civil offense — punishable by a $150 fine, no jail time, and no criminal record. The decriminalization law takes effect on April 1, 2013.

#10 Cannabis Reduces Symptoms In Patients With Treatment-Resistant MS
Cannabis inhalation mitigates spasticity and pain in patients with treatment-resistant multiple sclerosis (MS), according to clinical trial data published online in May in the Journal of the Canadian Medical Association. Investigators at the University of California, San Diego assessed the use of inhaled cannabis versus placebo in 30 patients with MS who were unresponsive to conventional treatments. “Smoked cannabis was superior to placebo in symptom and pain reduction in patients with treatment-resistant spasticity,” authors concluded.

Gallup: Most Americans Want The Federal Government To Butt Out Of State Marijuana Laws

Sixty-four percent of Americans oppose federal interference in state laws that allow for the legal use of the substance by adults, according to a random sampling of 1,015 adults by Gallup.

On Election Day, voters in Colorado and Washington approved measures allowing for the personal use of cannabis by those age 21 and older. Both of those state laws took effect in recent days.

According to Gallup, 64 percent of respondents do not believe that the federal government “should take steps to enforce federal anti-marijuana laws in those states.” Only 34 percent of respondents agree that the federal government should take actions to interfere with the implementation of these laws.

Gallup also reported that more than four out of ten respondents who oppose legalizing cannabis believe that the Administration should nonetheless respect state laws allowing for its legal possession, use, and sale.

The poll further reported that Americans are evenly divided on whether or not cannabis ought to be legal. Forty-eight percent of respondents endorse marijuana legalization while 50 percent of respondents oppose it — an increase in opposition of four percent since 2011.

Support for legalization was highest among those age 18 to 29 (60 percent) and weakest among those over age 65 (36 percent). Half of self-identified Independent voters back legalization, as do 61 percent of Democrats. By contrast, only 33 percent of Republican voters support legalization.

The Gallup findings regarding legalization are lower than those reported by other polls, including surveys by Public Policy Polling (58 percent support for legalizing cannabis), Angus Reid (54 percent), and Quinnipiac University (51 percent).

Dry Eye Syndrome To Become Most Common Eye Disease in Baby Boomers


Fort Collins, CO (PRWEB) June 02, 2011

Dr. David Kisling, an optometrist dry eye specialist in Fort Collins,CO. is forecasting the perfect dry eye storm season. According to Dr. Kisling, it has been brewing since the end of world war 2. Since Jan 1, 2011 it is now officially striking on US shores. Most of the dry eye epidemic can be regarded as a side effect of the aging of America. The first baby boomers were born in 1946 and the initial wave of these aging boomers turning 65 started on January 1st, 2011. This blast from the past won’t moderate for 18 years and we can expect to see dramatic changes in dry eye problems by 2030. The number of people over 65 is expected to double from its 2000 levels of 35 million to over 70 million over the next 20 years. Baby Boomers are getting older and dry eye syndrome increases significantly with maturity. In 1900 there were 120,000 people 85 and older. In 2030 there will be almost 9 million boomers in this age category. The tear layer loses stability with the passing decades and degrades faster giving rise to the burning, stinging sensations of dry eyes.The eyelid margins also undergo changes that alter the tear layer. As the eyelids lose muscular tone the edges can roll outward and contribute to incomplete blinks. These partial blinks fail to resurface the tear film on the eye leading to faster evaporation of the fluid. There are other pieces to the dry eye puzzle.

The population is not only aging but also growing- increasing the cases of dry eye syndrome just from the sheer numbers. The US population will add 50 million people by 2030 and about 4 million of these will have dry eyes ( Keratoconjunctivitis Sicca or K Sicca for short).

Women live longer-over the age of 85 there are twice as many women as men. Women have a much higher incidence of dry eye disease. Like it or not, women need testosterone even when they age. Women have a much higher incidence of Sj

Study: Those Arrested For Minor Pot Offenses Unlikely To Subsequently Commit Violent Crimes

Arresting and prosecuting low level marijuana offenders in New York City has little or no impact on law enforcement efforts to reduce violent crime, according to a study released today by Human Rights Watch, an international advocacy organization that focuses on human rights violations worldwide.

The study’s authors reviewed data from the New York Department of Criminal Justice Services to track the criminal records of nearly 30,000 people who had no prior convictions when they were arrested for marijuana possession in public view [NY State Penal Law 221.10] in 2003 and 2004. Researchers assessed whether those arrested for minor marijuana violations engaged in additional, more serious criminal activity in the years following their arrest.

They reported: “[W]e found that 3.1 percent of [marijuana arrestees] were subsequently convicted of one violent felony offense during the six-and-a-half to eight-and-a-half years that our research covers; 0.4 percent had two or more violent felony convictions. That is, 1,022 persons out of the nearly 30,000 we tracked had subsequent violent felony convictions. Ninety percent (26,315) had no subsequent felony convictions of any kind.”

New York City police arrest more people for possessing small amounts of marijuana in public view than for any other offense, the study found. Between 1996 and 2011, police made more than half-a-million (586,320) arrests for this misdemeanor, including a total of around 100,000 in just the 2 years of 2010 and 2011. Of those arrested, the overwhelming majority are either Black or Latino and under 25 years of age.

Investigators concluded: “[T]he rate of felony and violent felony conviction among this group of first-time marijuana arrestees appears to be lower than the rate of felony conviction for the national population, taking into account age, gender, and race. … Neither our findings nor those of other researchers indicate the arrests are an efficient or fair means for identifying future dangerous felons.”

Under New York state law, the private possession of up to 25 grams of marijuana is a non-criminal civil citation, punishable by a $100 fine. By contrast, the possession of any amount of cannabis in public view is a criminal misdemeanor.

In June, Democrat Gov. Andrew Cuomo urged lawmakers to close the ‘public view’ loophole. That effort was ultimately quashed by, Senate majority leader, Republican Dean Skelos, who argued, “Being able to just walk around with ten joints in each ear, and it only be a violation, I think that’s wrong.”

In October, Gov. Cuomo reiterated his support for amending the state’s marijuana laws. Speaking a the New York State Trooper Class of 2012 graduation ceremony, Cuomo said that he “would not consider” convening a special legislative session unless lawmakers were willing to consider reforms to reduce New York City’s skyrocketing marijuana arrest rates.

KCET?s ?SoCal Connected? Wins duPont-Columbia Award for 2011


Los Angeles, CA (Vocus) December 22, 2010

KCET?s hard-hitting weekly news program, SoCal Connected, today won the prestigious Alfred I. duPont-Columbia University Award for its extensive coverage of controversial and timely issues, it was announced today by the Columbia University Graduate School of Journalism.

The duPont-Columbia Award honors excellence in broadcast journalism and is considered equivalent to the Pulitzer Prize. The multiple Emmy



Visiting The Local MMJ Club – Marijuana Dispensary in California 2011

went by my new favorite local club … they always got the best i can find after going to like literally 20 clubs in my area.. they got best.., and they cap topshelf 1/8th’s @ 40bux.. anyways,.. i said what i have to say. peace friends prop215patients



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